Your CV should:

  • Be neat. Typed if possible and to the best standard you can achieve in content and layout
  • Be concise. Two sides of a sheet of A4 paper is normally enough
  • Be positive. It should emphasise your achievements, strengths, successes and how you have contributed to your employer’s profit (add figures to support facts whenever you can and use positive action words. For example: ‘consulting’, ‘negotiating’, ‘managing’ and so on)
  • Make a good impression. This means presenting the facts about yourself in a clear and positive way

How to use your CV

You can send your CV with a covering letter or email to an employer asking if they have any current or future vacancies in your trade. You can find names and addresses of companies in newspapers, on websites or in trade or telephone directories.

You can use your CV to help you remember all the dates and information each time you have to fill in a different application form.

Having your CV handy when applying for jobs by phone can help if you are asked to give more information about previous jobs. If you use textphone or Typetalk, having a copy of your CV can cut down the time you spend making a call.

Having your CV with you while you’re waiting to be called in for interview can help you refresh your memory. It is also handy to leave a copy with the interviewer, if they do not already have one – so make sure you print off a few spare copies when you go for interview.

What to include

There is no set format. How you present your CV is up to you. However, you should include at least the following:

  • Your name
  • Your address
  • Your phone number
  • Your email address (if you have one)
  • Your career history

Put your most recent job first and include dates. Employers will be more interested in what you have done recently. Don’t leave gaps between dates, because employers will want to know what you did during those periods.

If you don’t have much work experience, you could include temporary, holiday, part-time or voluntary jobs too. If you’ve had many different jobs, emphasise the skills and experience you have across those jobs (for example, dealing with customers or communication skills).

New laws on age discrimination mean that you do not need to put your date of birth, or your age, on your CV.

Here are some example headings you may want to include:

A personal profile

This is a short statement at the beginning of your CV to sell yourself, to show your skills, experience and personal qualities.

Tailor the statement to the requirements of each job that you apply for. Emphasis the fact to the employer that you’re the right person for the job.


Mention things you did well in your past jobs which could be relevant to the job you are applying for.

Qualifications and training

Include any qualifications and training from previous jobs (for example, training in health and safety or a certificate in food hygiene). Put the most recent first and include qualifications you got from school or college.


These can support your application if your hobbies and leisure activities highlight responsibilities and skills that are relevant to the job you’re applying for. Perhaps you belong to a club or society where you organise activities, or you use leadership skills or teamwork as part of the activity.

Other information

It is up to you whether to include this, but it can be helpful if there are gaps in your CV. If you had a career break because you were caring for children or elderly relatives, make this a positive thing. Think about the skills you used doing this. If the job you’re applying for is different from what you’ve done in the past, explain why you’re interested in the new type of work.


It’s good to have two or more people who can provide a work or personal reference. Ideally, one should be your most recent employer. If you haven’t worked for a while it could be someone who has known you for a long time. It should be someone who can comment on your qualities in relation to the job. You should ask the person to agree to this beforehand.

Finally, ask a friend or relative to read through your CV to make sure it’s accurate and shows your skills in a positive way.

Covering letters

A covering letter is your opportunity to tailor your experience and skills to the specific job on offer, using detail that may not be appropriate in your CV.

It is not enough to state that you believe yourself to be right for the job in question, you need to back up your statements and explain why your experience is relevant.


Avoiding the unnecessary phrase “I am writing to”, make sure your letter opens with a clear statement of intent e.g. “I would like to be considered for the position of….. as advertised in…… and I enclose a copy of my CV for your consideration”.

Body of the letter:

The main section of the letter should focus on an understanding of the job that you are applying for and its requirements, by outlining your relevant skills and experience in your career to date.  For example, if this is a management role, briefly outline a management position you have held, responsibilities it involved and skills you gained in the role.

Summing up:

Sum up your letter with a confident statement of why you would be good for this position and follow this with an invitation to get in touch.  For example, “I would welcome the opportunity to meet you and discuss my suitability for your company in more detail. In the meantime, please do not hesitate to contact me if you would like any further information.  I look forward to hearing from you soon”. Do enclose a copy of your CV. You can also send a copy of a reference if you feel it is appropriate at this stage.